Energy-efficient LED lighting

High-power MR16 LED Downlight

From around early 2009, high-powered LED lighting became popular and readily available. These lights consists of one to four high-power LED modules that can provide anywhere from 30 up to 80 lumens of light. Until then, most LED lamps were constructed from an array of smaller, inexpensive low-power, high-brightness LEDs. The output of these early LED lamps was dismal. The newer high-powered lamps approach, and in some cases, exceed their halogen counterparts in light output.

LED lighting is now approximately as efficient as flourescent lighting (from 40 to 60 lumens per watt). It excels when used to replace incandescent or halogen lighting.

Incandescent lights are extremely inefficient. Quite simply, they work by passing an electric current through a thin piece of tungsten wire, causing it to greatly heat up. A by-product of this massive heating is the emission of visible light. In fact, a typical incandescent lamp produces 98% heat energy and 2% light energy. They are quoted as having an efficiency of about 14 lumens per watt.

When to use LED lighting

LED lighting is roughly the same as fluorescent lighting in terms of efficiency. Therefore, it is generally uneconomical to replace mains powered fluoro lighting with LED lighting. The exception is when the power source is DC. This is because when using mains, AC power needs to be downconverted to extra low voltage DC (e.g. 12V DC) to run the LED lamps, by means of a transformer. The transformer is not 100% efficient, so some power loss occurs. But in a DC system (such as that provided by solar PV and batteries), no conversion is necessary, so the LED lamps can be powered directly, with little or no loss in power.

Therefore, you should only go the expense of installing LED lighting if you already have a DC renewable power system in place, or if you're replacing incandescent lights.

Where to use LED lighting

LED lighting can either supplement or completely replace your existing mains-powered lighting systems.

Replacing existing lighting: If your home already has extra low voltage downlighting, it is relatively simple to replace your existing MR16 halogen globes with drop-in LED replacements. If your lighting is not of the extra low voltage variety (i.e. you have 240v lamps), you will require a step-down transformer in order to run the LED lamps. In this case, a licenced electrician will be required to fit the transformer.

For homes that already have extra-low-voltage (12v) halogen downlighting, it is possible in most cases to simply replace the MR16 halogen globe with an LED MR16 lamp. Except for the more expensive or specialised ones, LED lamps need to be used with an iron-cored AC transformer or 12v DC. Electronic 'switchmode' downlight transformers are incompatible with many of the cheaper LED MR16 lamps and in some cases can cause the LED lamp to fail or be destroyed. This is due to the very high frequency 12V AC output of the switchmode transformer, which can be up to 10KHz. LED MR16 downlights work best on either 50Hz 12V AC or 12V DC. If you are handy with electronics, you can fit a bridge rectifier and filter capacitor between the switchmode transformer and LED lamp to provide 12V DC.

Supplementing existing lighting: 12v DC-powered LED lights can be installed alongside your existing mains-powered fluoro or incandescent lights - that is, you have two lights in your ceiling. A separate light switch needs to be installed for the 12v lights. This allows you to choose between the normal mains powered light or the LED lamps.

The LED lights are powered from batteries which are kept charged by your Solar PV system. Note that additional extra low voltage wiring needs to be installed. A 12V DC bus can be installed throughout the house to make it convenient for supplying power to your LED lamps in each room.

A dual system such as this is highly beneficial, because you have an independent set of lights that are immune from grid blackouts, and still have mains powered lighting for when your batteries are flat or not receiving enough charge due to many successive rainy days.

See also: Retrofitting LEDs in your home


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Metadoro Review – Broker Under Scrutiny For Investment Scam
We’ve got ourselves a case here. After emphasizing that offshore brokers are extremely risky time and time again, now’s the time to show you why.

Metadoro is a textbook example of this. Without further ado, we’ll start the Metadoro Review and hopefully deter you from investing.

On top of that, we seriously recommend you not to invest in the fake brokers Spartan Trade, Trades Universal, and Finotive Funding. Do not trade with these unlicensed brokers if you want to save your money!

Broker status: Offshore Broker
Regulated by: Unlicensed Scam Brokerage
Scammers Websites:
Blacklisted as a Scam by: NSSMC
Owned by: RHC Investments
Headquarters Country: Mauritius
Foundation year: 2019
Supported Platforms: MT4 & MT5
Minimum Deposit: 20 USD
Cryptocurrencies: Yes – BTC, ETH, ADA…
Types of Assets: Forex, Crypto, Indices, Shares, Commodities, ETFs, Bonds
Maximum Leverage: 1:500
Free Demo Account: Available
Accepts US clients: Yes
report a scam.
Metadoro Is A Scam Broker?
Metadoro is an offshore broker based in Mauritius and allegedly run by the company RHC Investments. This entity is registered with the local regulator, the FSC. That implies that Metadoro is a licensed provider, albeit a questionable one.

Namely, the offshore domain that is Mauritius simply requires entities to possess a capital of 25,000-250,000 EUR, depending on the type of license. Metadoro is on the higher end.

However, lower-tier jurisdictions aren’t very reliable as brokers have only one condition to meet – they aren’t liable to compensate clients or segregate their funds. They can vanish whenever they like without repercussions.

Metadoro is an offshore broker off the coast of Mauritius and is a licensed provider. However, after a warning from the Ukrainian NSSMC and complaints from clients, it’s clear that this is an investment scam.

Arguments For Trading With a Tier 1 Licensed Broker
As mentioned, regulated offshore brokers have irrelevant licenses most of the time. Instead, you should choose Tier 1 licensed brokers, those approved by the likes of the FCA, ASIC, BaFin, etc.

That way, they have to have significantly higher operating capital (i. g. 730,000 GBP), provide clients with negative balance protection, a segregated bank account, a compensation scheme (i. g. 20,000 EUR) and leverage restriction (1:30).

Metadoro Was Blacklisted by the Ukrainian Financial Authority NSSMC
It seems Metadoro was busted for conducting its wrongdoings. The Ukrainian National Securities and Stock Market Commission flagged this broker as a fraud. That’s a huge red flag in our eyes and reason enough not to trust Metadoro. Check out the warning for yourself:

Metadoro Warning From NSSMC
Metadoro Software – How Safe Is The Platform?
Metadoro Trading Software
Metadoro offers both Meta Trader 4 & 5. Could this be the pinnacle of the trap? These two cutting-edge platforms are widely considered the industry’s best with critical acclaim to their names.

They provide clients with a range of advanced tools and features such as algorithmic trading, live market reports and various charts. All in all, the platforms are perfect so why did we mention a trap?

Because you could get carried away with trading and everything you’ve earned could suddenly disappear. Remember that nothing is stopping Metadoro from simply vanishing with your funds.

What Financial Instruments Does Metadoro Include?
We have to say, it’s a pretty hefty offer. There’s an abundance of trading assets and instruments. From the classics to the more exotic variants, it’s all there supposedly. Here’s a quick overview, but be careful with it:

Forex pairs – EUR/USD, GBP/JPY, CAD/CHF…
Indices – US30, AUS200, NIKKEI225…
Commodities – coffee & wheat;
Energies – crude oil, brent oil, CO2 emission rights…
Metals – silver & gold;
Stocks – Apple, Tesla, Amazon…
ETFs – SPY500, Vanguard VOO & Invesco QQQ;
Bonds – Euro-Bund 10Y & Euro-Schatz 2Y;
Crypto assets – BTC, ETH, BNB…
Where Does Metadoro Engage In Fraud? – Countries Of Service
It seems Metadoro has set its fraudulent gaze on a number of countries. This is what we discovered:

The Netherlands;
The UK.
On, we also found out that the activity on the website spiked in November 2022 with 95,000 visits, mostly coming from Mexico and South America.

It’s alarming that Metadoro is on a world tour defrauding traders. It’s great that the Ukrainian regulator reacted, but not enough apparently.

As well, stay away from the trading scams Vestapros, OpoFinance, and ImportCapital! Furthermore, before investing, always investigate the history of internet trading firms!

Metadoro’s Account Types?
All we found on Metadoro’s website was a Welcome Account. This resembles a demo account in a way. You get 100 $ and MT4 for seven days to try things out.

As for proceeding to open a live account, the shady broker claims you only need 20 $. There’s no doubt that this isn’t your typical offshore scam.

Metadoro will allow you to trade and keep investing. After you’ve made some profits, that’s probably when the scammer will show its true face.

Metadoro’s Negative Balance Protection
Metadoro isn’t regulated by Tier 1 authorities, thus it isn’t obliged to provide clients with negative balance protection in case they’re about to go red.

Putting it up there is certainly a clever lure. Traders could easily hit zero since the leverage cap is way too high – 1:500! That’s a double-edged sword that’s disastrous more often than not.

Metadoro also claims it doesn’t charge any commissions and fees, which seems too good to be true. Brokers make money from fees & commissions, so why should one renounce them? Unless… The plan is to embezzle some hard-earned money.

Metadoro’s Deposit and Withdrawal Policies
Metadoro didn’t mention the funding methods on its website. We had to dig elsewhere. It seems that the con artist accepts the traditional payment methods:

Credit/debit cards;
Wire transfers.
The minimum deposit is just 20 $ and, as mentioned. Despite advertising a fee-free business, Metadoro contradicted its claim by saying it can charge deposit fees at its sole discretion.

Metadoro’s Terms and Conditions
The whole legal section looks legit. However, there are minor discrepancies that do give rise to doubt such as the one about fees that we mentioned above.

For that reason, we believe that a more thorough audit could reveal more fraudulent details. Due to the aforementioned warning and several other complaints, we conclude that Metadoro is not trustworthy at all.

Metadoro Broker Scammed You? – Please Tell Us Your Story
That’s a wrap. Our review is done and we hope you’ve picked up pieces of the truth during your read. If you’re a victim of this terrible hoax, don’t despair.

We’re here to tell you about the chargeback methods that could bring you your money back. If you need assistance with it, be sure to give us a call. Also, you could help us bring this scammer down once and for all!

What Is the Chargeback Procedure?
Credit/debit card transactions can be reversed via chargeback.
A chargeback can be requested at the issuing bank within 540 days.
Wire transfers can be reversed using a recall, also performed by the bank.
A recall is possible if the transaction is incomplete, otherwise, it’s not.
If you were scammed by a broker, let us know.

What Is Metadoro?
Metadoro is an offshore broker based and regulated in Mauritius. It claims to be owned by RHC Investments.

Is Metadoro a Scam Broker?
Yes. There are numerous complaints and a warning from the Ukrainian regulator that support this claim.

Is Metadoro Available in the United States or the UK?
Yes. The offshore provider seemingly accepts traders from both the UK and the US.

Does Metadoro Offer a Demo Account?
Yes. It’s in the form of a “Welcome Account” offered on the website. You get 100 $ to trade for seven days.

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